Prior to the 1960’s, most schools started at 8:30 or 9am. Increased movement of individuals to suburban areas, along with rising gas and transportation costs lead to school districts initiating “tiered” start times to allow for fewer school buses.
Significant research has been done in the past few decades, showing that this shift has resulted in most American adolescents being sleep deprived, leading to a multitude of health and public health issues.
The CDC, AAP, APA, and NEA, along with countless other organizations have recommended that no Middle of High Schools start classes prior to 8:30am.
- National Parent Teacher Association (2017)
- American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2017)
- Society of Behavioral Medicine (2017)
- American Medical Association (2016)
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2015)
- American Psychological Association (2014)
- National Association of School Nurses/Society of Pediatric Nurses (2014)
- American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (2014)
- American Academy of Pediatrics (2014)
- National Education Association - Resolution 5, Adequate Rest (2011)
- Marco Hafner, Martin Stepanek, Wendy M. Troxel. Later School Start Times in the U.S.: An Economic Analysis. RAND Corporation. August 2017.
- Marco Hafner MPhil, MSc, Martin Stepanek, MSc, Wendy M.Troxel, PhD. The economic implications of later school start times in the United States.Sleep Health. December 2017.
- Judith Owens, Darrel Drobnich, Allison Baylor, and Daniel Lewin. School Start Time Change: An In-Depth Examination of School Districts in the United States. Mind, Brain, and Education. December 2014;8(4):182-213. [This report is based on: The Children’s National Medical Center’s Blueprint for Change Team. School Start Time Change: An In-Depth Examination of School Districts in the United States_. April 2014.
- Paul Kelley, Steven W. Lockley, Russell G. Foster, and Jonathan Kelley. Synchronizing education to adolescent biology: 'let teens sleep, start school later.' Learning, Media and Technology. August 21, 2014.
- Paul Kelley and Clark Lee. Later School Start Times in Adolescence: Time for Change. Education Commission of the United States. 2014.
- Kyla L. Wahlstrom. Examining the Impact of Later High School Start Times on the Health and Academic Performance of High School Students: A Multi-Site Study. February 2014.
- Brian A. Jacob and Jonah E. Rockoff. Organizing Schools to Improve Student Achievement: StartTimes, Grade Configurations, and Teacher Assignments. September 2011.
- Scott E. Carrell et al. A's from Zzzz's? The Causal Effect of School Start Time on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 3 (August 2011): 62–81.
- Sleep Cycle Alarm Clock. Back to School and Back to Sleep: Sleep Patterns of Teenagers Worldwide. August 27, 2015.
- Anne G. Wheaton, Gabrielle A. Ferro, and Janet B. Croft. School Start Times for Middle School and High School Students — United States, 2011–12 School Year. MMWR. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. August 6, 2015.
- Meltzer LJ, Shaheed K, Ambler D. Start Later, Sleep Later: School Start Times and Adolescent Sleep in Homeschool Versus Public/ Private School Students. Behavioral Sleep Medicine 14:140–154, 2016.
- Matthew Kirby, Stefania Maggi, and Amedeo D’Angiulli. School Start Times and the Sleep–Wake Cycle of Adolescents: A Review and Critical Evaluation of Available Evidence. Educational Researcher 2011 40(2):56–61.